思考は習慣になる。

考えたこと

こんにちは
昨日はマネジメントをする上で身につけるべきだと思う4つの習慣についてお話ししました。

「いままで聞いたことあることとなんとなく近いな」と思う人と「聞いたことあるものと全然違うこと言ってるな」
という人がいると思います。
前者は僕と思考が近い人、後者は僕と思考が遠い人がそれぞれ近くにいたということですね

今回はその「思考」についてお話ししたいと思います。


思考にもクセがある

体にある行動としてのクセだけでなく、考え方やその順序にもクセがあります。
クセとは「繰り返して行うことで、習慣となって偏った性質や、仕草」のことですね。
ネガティヴ、ポジティブとかの思考もクセつけられるということです。

育ってきた環境、親や周りの人間からの教育、これらによって形成されたものが「思考のクセ」ですね。

行動のクセと同じく、思考のクセはなかなか自分では気づきにくいものです。

では少し考えてみましょう

確証バイアスと代表性ヒューリティクス

次の数列にはある法則があります。
その法則がなにか考えてみてくださいものすごく単純なものなので深く考えなくて大丈夫です。

問1.
1.3.5.8.11.15.19

問2.
4.10.18.28.40.54

さて、ここでどんな法則を考えたでしょうか

おそらく問1は多くの人が「1.3.5.ときたし、ものすごく単純と言ってるから奇数なだけかな?あれ?でも次が8だ…」とかよぎったかと思います。

そう考えてみると、「ある法則がある」と言われているだけなのにいつの間にか自分の中でその法則を決めつけてしまっていることがわかると思います。
それが「思考のクセ」と呼べるものだと思います。
少しでも「これはこうだろうな」という「自分の中の法則」に対して焦点を当ててしまうのです。
こういったこと”確証バイアス”と言います。

では問2を見てみましょう。
あなたは問1を一瞬見てから、問2を見ました。
その際に「問1は奇数の列、問2は偶数の列」と自分の中で分類わけをしませんでしたか?
まったく同じ内容ではなくても、自分の中でなんらかのカテゴリー分けをしてしまったかと思います。

これを”代表性ヒューリティクス”と言います。

こういったことは心理学の部門でも研究され、実証されているものです。
「考え方にクセなんてないよ。だって均等に、公平に判断するようにしてるもの」

という人も、無意識のうちにこう言ったように自分の中で”分類分け”や”ルール作り”という癖を持っているのです。


一発で記憶にはつながらない

習慣化するためにはまず”記憶に定着させる”ことが必要になります。
そのため「思考のクセを上塗りするために記憶を塗り替える」ということですね。記憶の定着→行動に定着→習慣化という流れになります。

人間は「命にかかわることから記憶することができる」という習性を持っています。
逆に言ってしまうと、命にかかわらないことは忘れやすいということですね。
”忘れる”ということが前提にあるのが人間なのです。

そのため、記憶するためには「何回も繰り返す」という作業が絶対に必要になります。

例えとして言われていることは「山道を進むことと同じだ」ということですね。

舗装されていない道を進む際にどのように道が作られて行くのでしょうか。
最初は木々が生い茂り、道具もなに使わず、道なんてないところに道を作る場合。
何度も何度もそこを通り、地面を踏み固める必要があります。そうして進んだときにようやく固められた道ができるのです。

記憶を定着させるのもそれと同じで、一度にできるものではないのです。
地盤を踏み固めることでなかなか崩れない道にすることができるように、何回も同じことを覚えようとすることでしっかりと記憶として定着させることができるのです。

そして記憶の定着にはある法則があります。
加齢などで個人差やその情報の質にもよって個体差があるものの、おおよそで20分で42%、1時間で56%忘れるといったように徐々に「時間と共に記憶の保持率が変わる」という法則があるのです。

それを「エビングハウスの忘却曲線」といいます。

この曲線をもとに考えると、「記憶が薄まったときに新しく記憶に定着させることをすれば、定着の効率がよくなる」ということになります。

そのため、記憶に定着させるには1回で覚えようとするのではなく、何回も定着させる作業を行うことが最も効率が良いのです。

定着するまで6か月かかる

記憶に定着させることができたら次は「習慣として定着させる」ことを行います。よく「行動を習慣化させたければ3週間続けろ」と言われますよね。

これはなぜなんでしょうか。

これは「インキュベートの法則」と呼ばれるもので、「意識的に行っていることは21日間行うことで無意識に行うことができるようになる」という法則です。
そのため、意識的に習慣の改善をする場合は21日間行うことで無意識でも行えるように習慣化することができるということですね。

単純に「なにか行動を変えようとしたときは3週間で定着する」ということですね。

では記憶の定着を上塗りするために何度も作業して定着→行動を3週間かけて定着ということをして、行動が習慣になるためにはどのくらいの期間が必要なのでしょうか。

それには3~6か月必要です。アメリカの行動分析の学者が定義した「3の法則」というものに基づきます。

3日間3週間3か月という期間に気を付けて行うという理論ですね。

人間は1~2日ならばなんとか頑張れてしまうが、3日連続だと妥協しやすい。
3週間続けたら行動が定着する。つまり慣れるということですね。
つぎはそれを繰り返して「記憶に定着することで無意識化で行えるようにする」ということです。

単純作業や軽度な作業習慣だと3か月繰り返すことで習慣として定着します。
複雑な作業や、いままでの考え方から遠いものだと余計に時間が必要になるため、3週間のサイクルを3回繰り返すことで定着するという流れになります。

ネガティブな思考や口癖などの習慣幼いころからの積み重ねによるもは6か月、およそ63日間で改善できるのです。

重要なのは「記憶として定着させてそれをさらに繰り返す」ということです。


まとめ

いかがでしょうか

「思考は習慣になる」ということは理解してもらえたでしょうか。

思考は習慣の積み重ねによってできたことであり、習慣を変えることで思考も改善できる。
そのためは新たに記憶として自分に定着させる必要があり、それを行動にするためにはおよそ3週間必要。
行動に慣れたらそれを繰り返すことで習慣にすることができる。

  1. 思考にもクセがある
  2. 思考が定着するには6ヶ月
  3. 一発で記憶にはつながらない

 

ということですね。
もしも自分の思考を変えたければ試してみてください。

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