【中国文化】古代の日本文化に強く影響を与えた者【仏教】

学んだこと

こんにちは

前回歴史を理解するためには、文化的背景や当時の技術レベルを知ることが一番だという話をしました。

今回は和食、ひいては日本文化に対して特に影響を与えたものを僕なりにピックアップしてみました。

僕は和食は数ある日本文化の中で、絶対に外せないと考えています。
和食や、昔の日本人の食事の背景を知ることで、日本の歴史のなりたち、文化の成り立ちを知っていきましょう。

なんとなく学校で「日本はいろんな国が外からやってきてそれを取り入れてやってきたんだな」ぐらいは習ってきたはずです。
それをざっくりとどうやっていまの日本文化ができて、いまの和食につながってきたのかをお話しします。


中国文化と仏教は和食になくてはならないもの

古代日本から作り上げられてきた日本文化において絶対に外せないのが中国から伝来した文化仏教です。
インドで生まれた仏教が古代日本に伝来し、いまでは完全に定着した宗教であることは周知の事実でしょう。

ですが、そのときに一緒に伝来したものはあまり知られていないと思います。

現在の中華料理を思い出すと、和食とはまったく似ていませんね。
日本は大陸から伝わってきたものを、何年、何十年、何百年もの時間をかけて自国の文化である和食として確固たる地位を築いていったのです。

仏教と共に伝来したものたち

仏教は6世紀から8世紀の飛鳥時代と呼ばれる時代に百済(古代の朝鮮半島西部から南西部にあった国)から伝来しました。
百済は中国の南朝を積極的に交流し、仏教を取り入れていった国でした。
日本は百済を通して、中国文化を取り入れていったわけですね。

このころの日本は積極的に大陸から文化を取り入れていこうとしていました。
それぞれ時代は違いますが、遣唐使や遣隋使の名前を聞いたことがある人は多いんじゃないでしょうか。

その時に仏教と共にやってきたものがたくさんあります。
(現在の醤油のもとになるもの)、生姜大根唐菓子(現在の揚げ物のもとになるもの)、魚膾(酢の物や和え物のもとになるもの)がこのころに伝来しました。

和食にとってなくてはならない醤油のもとになるものや、生姜、大根が日本古来のものではないのはとても意外ですよね。


なぜ仏教は日本に根付いたのか

なぜこれほどまでに仏教が日本に根付いたのでしょうか
例えばあなたがなにか問題のあるものを改善しようするときに、どんな行動をとりますか?

インターネットや周りの人への相談など、新しい考えを得ようとしませんか?
古代日本にとって全く新しい考え方というのは、唐や隋などの大陸の文化のことでした。
そしてその中で特にインパクトの強かったものが仏教だったんです。

仏教はインドで生まれ、シルクロードを通って中国へ伝来しました。
そして中国で広まり、時間と共にだんだんと変化していきました。
日本に伝来するときには政治とセットになっていました。

古代日本では神仏に対する重要度はとても高かったため、政治の道具として活用するのが有効でした。
神仏の教えを上位の存在から与える、つまりトップダウン型の組織運営の仕方を定着させるためにとても有効な考え方でした。

それまでの日本は有力な権力者たちがそれぞれの地方を収める、いわゆる連合国家でした。
そこで「仏教を信じ、孝徳を積むことが重要である。飢饉や疫病はそれによって収まる」としました。
仏教を取り入れることで人々の行動規範を保ちながら政治を行う、そして近代化をしていくことができる組織作りとして有効活用されたのです。

なぜ仏教を使って権力を集中させようとしたのか

一番の理由は近代国家に対抗できる国を作るためでした。
当時遣隋使や遣唐使を派遣し、頻繁に交易を行うなど一見友好的な関係のようでした。
しかし、その裏では「いつか大国から侵略されるかもしれない」という恐怖が常に付きまとっていました。

そこで有名な推古天皇厩戸皇子(聖徳太子)が中央集権化を目指し、国全体に仏教を広めていったのです。

小野妹子 が有名な「日出ずる国の天子より日の没する国の天子へ」との親書を中国の煬帝へと渡したのは「日本はあなたの国と同じ、ちゃんとした近代国家ですよ」というメッセージが込められていました。煬帝はとても苛烈な皇帝だったため、これは命がけの行為でした。

大化の改新も学校で習った記憶があるでしょう。
これは大化という元号を作った歴史的な出来事でした。
元号はその時代の権力はどこにあるのかを示すものであり、元号がない国は近代国家として認められません。

つまり、中国などの大国に侵略される前に権力を集中し、元号や行動規範を広い範囲で統一する、そのためには権力を集中し指揮系統を一元化する必要があった。
それに当時もっとも効率的で有効だったのが仏教だったのです。


仏教によってなにが変わったのか

仏教は政治の在り方、国民の意識、そして様々な文化に影響を与えていきました。

それまでの連合国のような分散された権力を中央集権に、仏教を信じることが幸福な人生に通じるとするなど、人々の暮らしだけでなく、意識面の改革も仏教を活用することで可能になったのです。
人々はこれまで以上に善悪を尊ぶようになり、仏教によって禁じられていることは避けるようになっていきました。

中国文化の影響を古代日本は強く受けていましたが、唐の力が落ちていくと遣唐使のやり取りが減っていきました。
それによって中国文化が少し残ったまま、日本独自の文化を形成していく段階に入っていったのです。


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