【タンパク質】過剰摂取と栄養不足は紙一重

健康

前回の続きです。→【糖質】過剰な糖質制限、過剰な糖質摂取は身を亡ぼす


タンパク質のは人体に取ってとても重要な存在

タンパク質は体を構成する上でなくてはならない栄養素です。
人間の体を作るうえで、必ずタンパク質は使われています。
同時に身体を動かすエネルギーとしても使われます。

タンパク質はアミノ酸が集まってできたもので、人間の体内でも作れるものを非必須アミノ酸、作れないものを必須アミノ酸と呼びます。

よくスポーツ系飲料水に書いてある「BCAA配合」というのは、必須アミノ酸であるバリン、ロイシン、イソロイシンの総称のことです。
Brabched Chain Amino Acidの頭文字で分岐差アミノ酸と呼ばれています。

BCAAは筋肉の分解を防ぎ、運動時のエネルギーとして使われます。
また体内に乳酸が蓄積されるのを防ぎ、セロトニン、トリプトファンの生成を助けます。

セロトニンとトリプトファンはホルモンの一種で 気分が落ちたらバナナ食って太陽に向かって走れにてその重要性の話はしていますので、読んでみてください。

タンパク質を取らないと身体は衰えるタンパク質が不足すると、病気や感染症への抵抗力の衰え、筋肉量の減少、集中力の低下、肌荒れ、貧血などがおきます。

「タンパク質は筋肉をつけるために必要だ」というイメージを持つ方は多いと思います。
それは間違いないのですが、正確に言うと、タンパク質は筋肉、骨、臓器、髪の毛、爪、ホルモン、酵素など、体を構成するありとあらゆるものを作る材料となっています。

そのため、タンパク質が不足するということは、体全体の衰えを招いてしまうのです。
体内のタンパク質は毎日作り替えられていきます。
タンパク質が不足すると、作り替えができなくなってしまうということですね。

特に注意すべきはタンパク質の一種のアルブミンです。
健康診断で血液検査をしたことがあれば、見た経験がある方もいると思いますが、「Alb」と表記されているものですね。
アルブミンは血液中のタンパク質の60~70%を占めています。

アルブミンは水分を保持、血液を循環させるために必要な働きを維持する、体内のいろいろなものと合体することで行きわたらせる作用があります。

肝臓で作られるもので、アルブミンが体に少ない場合、肝疾患、ネフローゼ症候群、栄養失調などが疑われます。

糖質制限ダイエットの際に「元気でいるためにはタンパク質を代わりに取れば大丈夫!!」などと言われることが多いですよね。
それはタンパク質を積極的に摂取していくことで、このアルブミンの生成を促していくということです。

タンパク質が供給不足だと低タンパク血症になってしまう

アルブミンが異常に減ってしまうと低タンパク血症になってしまいます。
身体がむくみ、貧血を起こし、食欲がなくなり、慢性的な下痢、腹水がたまる、心機能低下、感染症にかかりやすくなる、などの症状が出ます。

低タンパク血症はネフローゼ症候群や糖尿病、膠原病などからも引き起こされる可能性があるため一概には言えませんが、軽症のうちはただの体調不良と誤解されることが多い疾患です。

ですが、重症化すると肺や心臓にも水が溜まります。
身体の機能が低下しているため、血液中のタンパク質が尿と共に排出されてしまいます。

そのため、血液中のタンパク質濃度が下がり、コレステロール値が増加してしまいます。
コレステロール値の増加により、腎不全、肺梗塞、心筋梗塞、脳梗塞、感染症を発症する危険性が上がってしまします。

また、身体にあるタンパク質の量が減るということは、筋肉を使うためのエネルギーが少ない状態にあります。
人間の体は、なにかしらのエネルギーが足りなくなると、代用品を使ってそのエネルギーを作り出します。

摂取されたタンパク質が足りないと、いったい何を代用品として使われるでしょうか。
簡単な話で、新しく入ってこないのならば、いまあるものを使えばいいのです。

人間の身体で、すでにあるタンパク質とはなんでしょうか。
そう、筋肉です。
タンパク質の摂取量が減っていくと、代用品として筋肉を分解してエネルギーとして使ってしまうのです。
それによって全身の筋肉量の低下が引き起こされてしまいます。


本当に怖いタンパク質の不足と過剰

タンパク質の不足はこのように人間の体に対して様々な影響を及ぼします。
「じゃあ糖質制限しながらとにかく肉食べてタンパク質を取ればいいんだね!!」と思う方もいるかもしれません。

ですが、それは間違いです

これまでの栄養に関する記事で何回も「重要なのはバランスで、過剰摂取や不足などの偏りは厳禁」というような内容の話はしているので、勘の良い方は気づいているかもしれません。

タンパク質も摂取しすぎは禁物です。

タンパク質の過剰摂取は肝機能障害や腎機能障害を引き起こす危険性があります。
タンパク質は肝臓と腎臓の働きによって正常に機能するのですが、過剰摂取をしてしまうと負担をかけすぎてしまうということですね。

肝臓と腎臓に機能障害が起きるということは、血中の成分のバランスが崩れることにもつながります。

先ほどのアルブミンというタンパク質の一種が血液中に60~70%あるのが健康の指標ですが、血液中の成分が崩れるとその数値が上下します。

血液中のタンパク質のバランスが崩れると、タンパク質が多すぎる場合は肝炎、脂肪肝などの疾患が、少ない場合は肝硬変、がん、ネフローゼ症候群などの疾患を生む可能性があります。

つまり、タンパク質を積極的に取って健康になるつもりが、肝臓や腎臓に負担をかけてしまい、かえって血液中のタンパク質のバランスを崩し、思いもよらない病気にかかってしまう可能性があるということです。

大切なのは、あくまでもバランスです。


続きます。→【脂質】脂と油の違い知ってますか?【栄養バランス】

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